10. Frequently Asked Questions

10.1. Can’t start distributed clients: timeout error

Most of the time, when a crash happened at startup without any traffic generated, the problem arise because the main Erlang controller node cannot create a “slave” Erlang virtual machine. The message looks like:

Can't start newbeam on host 'XXXXX (reason: timeout) ! Aborting!

The problem is that the Erlang slave module cannot start a remote slave node.

You can test this using this simple command on the controller node (remotehost is the name of the client node):

>erl -rsh ssh -sname foo -setcookie mycookie

Eshell V5.4.3 (abort with ^G)
(foo@myhostname)1>slave:start(remotehost,bar,"-setcookie mycookie").

You should see this:

{ok,bar@remotehost}

If you got {error,timeout}, it can be caused by several problems:

  • ssh in not working (you must have a key without passphrase, or use an agent)

  • Tsung and Erlang are not installed on all clients nodes

  • Erlang version or location (install path) is not the same on all clients nodes

  • A firewall is dropping Erlang packets: Erlang virtual machines use several TCP ports (dynamically generated) to communicate (if you are using EC2, you may have to change the Security Group that is applied on the VMs used for Tsung: open port range 0 - 65535)

  • SELinux: You should disable SELinux on all clients.

  • Bad /etc/hosts: This one is wrong (real hostname should not refer to localhost/loopback):

    127.0.0.1 localhost myhostname

    This one is good:

    127.0.0.1 localhost
    192.168.3.2 myhostname
  • sshd configuration: For example, for SuSE 9.2 sshd is compiled with restricted set of paths (ie. when you shell into the account you get the users shell, when you execute a command via ssh you don’t) and this makes it impossible to start an Erlang node (if Erlang is installed in /usr/local for example).

    Run:

    ssh myhostname erl

    If the Erlang shell doesn’t start then check what paths sshd was compiled with (in SuSE see /etc/ssh/sshd_config) and symlink from one of the approved paths to the Erlang executable (thanks to Gordon Guthrie for reporting this).

  • old beam processes (Erlang virtual machines) running on client nodes: kill all beam processes before starting Tsung.

Note that you do not need to use the 127.0.0.1 address in the configuration file. It will not work if you use it as the injection interface. The shortname of your client machine should not refer to this address.

Warning Tsung launches a new Erlang virtual machine to do the actual injection even when you have only one machine in the injection cluster (unless use_controller_vm is set to true). This is because it needs to by-pass some limit with the number of open socket from a single process (1024 most of the time). The idea is to have several system processes (Erl beam) that can handle only a small part of the network connection from the given computer. When the maxusers limit (simultaneous) is reach, a new Erlang beam is launched and the newest connection can be handled by the new beam).

New in 1.1.0: If you don’t use the distributed feature of Tsung and have trouble to start a remote beam on a local machine, you can set the use_controller_vm attribute to true:

<client host="mymachine" use_controller_vm="true">

10.2. Tsung crashes when I start it

Does your Erlang system has SSL support enabled ?

to test it:

> erl
Eshell V5.2  (abort with ^G)
1> ssl:start().
you should see 'ok'

10.3. Why do i have error_connect_emfile errors?

emfile error means : too many open files

This happens usually when you set a high value for maxusers (in the <client> section) (the default value is 800).

The errors means that you are running out of file descriptors; you must check that maxusers is less than the maximum number of file descriptors per process in your system (see ulimit -n).

You can either raise the limit of your operating system (see /etc/security/limits.conf for Linux) or decrease maxusers Tsung will have to start several virtual machine on the same host to bypass the maxusers limit.

It could be good if you want to test a large number of users to make some modifications to your system before launching Tsung:

  • Put the domain name into /etc/hosts if you don’t want the DNS overhead and you only want to test the target server

  • Increase the maximum number of open files and customize TCP settings in /etc/sysctl.conf. For example:

    net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
    fs.file-max = 65000

10.4. Tsung still crashes/fails when I start it!

First look at the log file ~/.tsung/log/XXX/tsung_controller@yourhostname to see if there is a problem.

If the file is not created and a crashed dump file is present, maybe you are using a binary installation of Tsung not compatible with the version of Erlang you used.

If you see nothing wrong, you can compile Tsung with full debugging: recompile with make debug, and don’t forget to set the loglevel to debug in the XML file (see tsung.xml log levels).

To start the debugger or see what happen, start Tsung with the debug argument instead of start. You will have an Erlang shell on the tsung_controller node. Use toolbar:start(). to launch the graphical tools provided by Erlang.

10.5. Can I dynamically follow redirect with HTTP?

If your HTTP server sends 30X responses (redirect) with dynamic URLs, you can handle this situation using a dynamic variable:

<request>
  <dyn_variable name="redirect" re="Location: (http://.*)\r"/>
  <http url="index.html" method="GET" ></http>
</request>

<request subst="true">
  <http url="%%_redirect%%" method="GET"></http>
</request>

You can even handle the case where the server use several redirections successively using a repeat loop (this works only with version 1.3.0 and up):

<request>
  <dyn_variable name="redirect" re="Location: (http://.*)\r"/>
  <http url='/test/redirect.html' method='GET'></http>
</request>

<repeat name="redirect_loop" max_repeat="5">
  <request subst="true">
    <dyn_variable name="redirect" re="Location: (http://.*)\r"/>
    <http url="%%_redirect%%" method="GET"></http>
  </request>
  <until var="redirect" eq=""/>
</repeat>

10.6. What is the format of the stats file tsung.log?

Sample tsung.log:

# stats: dump at 1218093520
stats: users 247 247
stats: connected 184 247
stats: users_count 184 247
stats: page 187 98.324 579.441 5465.940 2.177 9.237 595 58
stats: request 1869 0.371 0.422 5.20703125 0.115 0.431 7444062 581
stats: connect 186 0.427 0.184 4.47216796875 0.174 0.894 88665254 59
stats: tr_login 187 100.848 579.742 5470.223 2.231 56.970 91567888 58
stats: size_rcv 2715777 3568647
stats: 200 1869 2450
stats: size_sent 264167 347870
# stats: dump at 1218093530
stats: users 356 356
stats: users_count 109 356
stats: connected -32 215
stats: page 110 3.346 0.408 5465.940 2.177 77.234 724492 245
stats: request 1100 0.305 0.284 5.207 0.115 0.385 26785716 2450
stats: connect 110 0.320 0.065 4.472 0.174 0.540 39158164 245
stats: tr_login 110 3.419 0.414 5470.223 2.231 90.461 548628831 245
stats: size_rcv 1602039 5170686
stats: 200 1100 3550
stats: size_sent 150660 498530
...

the format is, for request, page, session and transactions tr_XXX:

stats: name, 10sec_count, 10sec_mean, 10sec_stddev, max, min, mean, count

or for HTTP returns codes, size_sent and size_rcv:

stats: name, count(during the last 10sec), totalcount(since the beginning)

10.7. How can I compute percentile/quartiles/median for transactions or requests response time?

It’s not directly possible. But since version 1.3.0, you can use a new experimental statistic backend: set backend="fullstats" in the <tsung> section of your configuration file (also see File structure).

This will print every statistics data in a raw format in a file named tsung-fullstats.log. Warning: this may impact the performance of the controller node (a lot of data has to be written to disk).

The data looks like:

{sum,connected,1}
{sum,connected,-1}
[{sample,request,214.635},
 {sum,size_rcv,268},
 {sample,page,831.189},
 {count,200},
 {sum,size_sent,182},
 {sample,connect,184.787},
 {sample,request,220.974},
 {sum,size_rcv,785},
 {count,200},
 {sum,size_sent,164},
 {sample,connect,185.482}]
{sum,connected,1}
[{count,200},{sum,size_sent,161},{sample,connect,180.812}]
[{sum,size_rcv,524288},{sum,size_rcv,524288}]

Since version 1.5.0, a script tsung_percentile.pl is provided to compute the percentiles from this file.

10.8. How can I specify the number of concurrent users?

You can’t. But it’s on purpose: the load generated by Tsung is dependent on the arrival time between new clients. Indeed, once a client has finished his session in Tsung, it stops. So the number of concurrent users is a function of the arrival rate and the mean session duration.

For example, if your web site has 1,000 visits/hour, the arrival rate is 1000/3600 = 0.2778 visits/second. If you want to simulate the same load, set the inter-arrival time is to 1/0.27778 = 3.6 sec (e.g. <users interarrival="3.6" unit="second"> in the arrivalphase node in the XML config file).

10.9. SNMP monitoring doesn’t work?!

It use SNMP v1 and the “public” community. It has been tested with http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/.

You can try with snmpwalk to see if your snmpd config is ok:

>snmpwalk -v 1 -c public IP-OF-YOUR-SERVER .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0
UCD-SNMP-MIB::memTotalReal.0 = INTEGER: 1033436

SNMP doesn’t work with Erlang R10B and Tsung older than 1.2.0.

There is a small bug in the snmp_mgr module in old Erlang release (R9C-0). This is fixed in Erlang R9C-1 and up, but you can apply this patch to make it work on earlier version:

--- lib/snmp-3.4/src/snmp_mgr.erl.orig  2004-03-22 15:21:59.000000000 +0100
+++ lib/snmp-3.4/src/snmp_mgr.erl       2004-03-22 15:23:46.000000000 +0100
@@ -296,6 +296,10 @@
     end;
 is_options_ok([{recbuf,Sz}|Opts]) when 0 < Sz, Sz =< 65535 ->
     is_options_ok(Opts);
+is_options_ok([{receive_type, msg}|Opts]) ->
+    is_options_ok(Opts);
+is_options_ok([{receive_type, pdu}|Opts]) ->
+    is_options_ok(Opts);
 is_options_ok([InvOpt|_]) ->
     {error,{invalid_option,InvOpt}};
 is_options_ok([]) -> true.

10.10. How can i simulate a fix number of users?

Use maxnumber to set the max number of concurrent users in a phase, and if you want Tsung to behave like ab, you can use a loop in a session (to send requests as fast as possible); you can also define a max duration in <load>.

<load duration="5" unit="minute">
   <arrivalphase phase="1" duration="10" unit="minute">
   <users maxnumber="10" arrivalrate="100" unit="second"></users>
</arrivalphase>
</load>
<sessions>
  <session probability="100" name="ab">
    <for from="1" to="1000" var="i">
      <request>
        <http url="http://myserver/index.html" method="GET"></http>
      </request>
    </for>
  </session>
</sessions>